What common approaches to street building do you find in Paris and Vienna? Why did city and national governments lay out such streets?
What classes seem to have occupied the new buildings constructed along Hausmann’s boulevards and the Ringstrasse boulevards in Vienna? Where do the sources suggest that persons of lower income were forced to live? Why does an economically segregated housing pattern evolve?
In the second half of the nineteenth century, buildings such as operas, museums, and theaters were constructed at public expense in Paris and Vienna. What social groups do you think initially benefited most from such institutions? What does this tell you about the groups most influencing late-nineteenth-century politics?
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the right to vote was extended to most adult men in Europe. Political parties addressing working-class needs also emerged at this time. What evidence of such new political empowerment do you see in Parisian and Viennese urban development in the early twentieth century?
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